The lower rates are most common in drier areas. Get Started; Field Size; Crop; Target Population; Thousand Grain Weight; Germination Percentage; Estimated Establishment; Your Results; Get started . Ideally, winter wheat is planted while the soil and air temperatures are still warm to ensure the seedlings can emerge quickly and in plenty of time to develop a couple of tillers and a strong root system. Wheat seed size varies considerably and this option must be determined by counting the number of seeds per pound (usually on seed tag). The sowing rate depends on climatic and soil conditions. Managing early-drilled winter wheat: Seed rates, varieties and disease control by C Pillinger1, E J Evans1, J M Whaley1, S M Knight2 & N Poole2 1School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NR1 7RU 2 The Arable Group, Manor Farm, Daglingworth, Cirencester, GL7 7AH This is the final report of a 51-month project that started in August 1999. Avoid inter-seeding winter wheat and spring wheat, as this creates a mixture of contrasting wheat classes which can result in marketing problems. Seeding rates based upon weight alone can result in plant populations that are too high or too low, depending on seed size. Centre. The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer. University of Minnesota Extension discovers science-based solutions, delivers practical education, and engages Minnesotans to build a better future. Seed winter wheat to achieve a plant stand of 25 plants per square foot in the Brown and Dark Brown soil zones. Maize Find out more. Seed rate must be increased to 125 kg / ha for late sown and rainfed conditions. Marketing Permissions Limagrain UK will use the information you provide on this form to be in touch with you occasionally and to provide valuable tecnical updates, news and events information. Good seed will have a germination of 90-95% and seed mortality is approximately 3%, but can vary greatly. 5. More often than not, winter kill is not uniformly distributed across the field, but occurs in patches. Then, use one of the several items available to help calibrate the seeder. Nebraska growers use seeding rates for winter wheat that vary from 30 to 180 lb per acre (320,000 to almost 3,000,000 seeds per acre). Seed size was smaller in 2020 than in the good conditions for seed fill in 2019. Reynolds commits to broadband funding. For the period between harvest and planting, growers often have only one to two months to make a range of decisions. UI Platinum; Hard Red Spring Wheat Seed. Calculate the seeding rate using the following equation: Seeding rate (pounds per acre) = [desired stand / (1 - expected stand loss)] / [(seeds per pound) x percent germination] Optimal stand. We use these technologies for Cereals Find out more. Kg/Ha 0. Table 2 shows the yield potential of winter wheat seeded on the recommended seeding date at 18 seeds per foot of row with 80% germination and emergence (stand establishment). Hence, in the analysis of these trials there could be no chance of an economic optimum seed rate lying between 160 and 640 seeds/m2 i.e. If seeding rate for Winter Wheat is determined by lbs/acre, the number of seeds per acre could vary by as much as 13 times! Please fill out the form below and a member of our team will be in touch. Our review of the AHDB project report resulted in NIAB TAG continuing to recommend the optimum plant populations suggested by its own trials. The number of ears present at harvest has a major influence on the yield of winter wheat. Key Words: Wheat, seed rate, growth, yield, nutrient uptake, lodging Citation: Laghari, G.M., F.C. Seeding 40 lb of seed with a weight of 15,000 seed per pound has a yield potential of 60 bushels per acre. All rights reserved. For example, see NebGuide G2044. Nebraska growers use seeding rates for winter wheat that can vary from 30 to 180 lb per acre (300,000 to almost 4,000,000 seeds per acre = 13.3) if the lower rate is with a large seed and the higher rate is with a small seed. Large seed tends to tiller more than small seeds; however, small dense kernels are better than large, light kernels. The optimum stand of winter wheat is 900,000 to 1,000,000 plants per acre or 21 to 23 plants per square feet. the seed rates commonly used at the time. However, using seeding rates that are too low can lead to excessive tillering. Winter wheat seeding recommendations for western Nebraska dryland winter wheat will likely be based on the number of seeds per foot of row. Results: Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments had no effect on the emergence rate of winter wheat and could prevent yield losses and wheat aphid infestations throughout the winter wheat growing season. Grass seed, Gamecover and Forage Crops. Winter wheat producers in the Rolling Plains and High Plains have a tight crop management schedule year-around. average shoot survival = 63% range: 50-76% Too much competition, even among small grain plants, may lead to fewer kernels per head and lower kernel weight. Historically, wheat growers calculated their seeding rate based on pounds of seed per acre; however, seed size varies; When weight is used for wheat seeding rates, a seed size difference of this magnitude can result in a 53% difference in seeding rate. In fact, beginning in late September until late October, potential wheat yields tend to slip at least one bushel for every day planting is delayed. In most cases, this number is finalised around anthesis, with the proportion of shoots that survive during the period from stem extension to anthesis having a large effect. Walter Paszkowski to join the Alberta Agricult... Canadian Agricultural Safety Association Welco... Ag Barometer Shows Optimism About Current Cond... Reducing food waste through sustainable insect... Beefing up agriculture research at Lakeland Co... 2020 Average Farm Land Rental Rates and Farm W... 2020 Proves to Have Been a Surprisingly Steady... Biden nominates Dr. January marks one year of the U.S. and China’s tr... Gov. The higher rates are used for irrigated wheat, which often is seeded in narrower rows and later in the season, as it often follows another crop rather than fallow. The higher rates are used for irrigated wheat which often is seeded in narrower rows and later in the season since it often follows another crop rather than fallow. First, use the operator's manual to set the seeder. Find … Under irrigated, timely sown conditions a seed rate of about 100 kg/ha at 38 g/1000 seeds is required. This information is maintained by Stacey Tames UI Stone; Malting Barley Seed. When planting winter wheat, a relatively deeper seed placement is required, in which the tillering node is laid deeper. Seed for planting should be above 85% germination. 3. Alternatively, call us on 01472 371471. Generally, seed cleaning will add 1 to 2 lb to the seedlot's test weight by removing the small kernels. Floyd E. Bolton at Oregon State University suggests 18 seeds per foot of row seems to be the point … Siddiqui, S.W. Hard White Winter Wheat Seed. The current research is evaluating seeding rates on both 7.5- and 10-inch row spacings using seeding rates of 14, 16, 18 and 20 seeds per foot of row. Two winter wheat cultivars were evaluated in eight of the trials. Find out more. Nebraska growers use seeding rates for winter wheat that can vary from 30 to 180 lb per acre (300,000 to almost 4,000,000 seeds per acre = 13.3) if the lower rate is with a large seed and the higher rate is with a small seed. In the 2019 Harlan County tests seed size varied from 9,900 to 13,000 seed per pound. With an average seed size of 15,000 seeds per pound or 900,000 seeds per bushel, a pound of average-sized seed with 80% germination and emergence has a yield potential of approximately 1.5 bushels per acre. Roots are generally less winter-hardy than crowns and regrowth may be very slow, even if roots and shoots appear dead. More dense sowing is used in the northern humid regions. The amount of protein in the seed, not the protein percentage, is very important to early seedling vigor. You may not be able to determine the degree of winter kill until the end of April. TGW. Wait until the plants break dormancy and fields begin to green up before making any decision on replanting. Those who may still be planting by pounds or bushels per acre may want to consider a different approach. Seeding shallower than an inch deep puts the crowns at a higher risk for winter kill, while seeding deeper will delay emergence. RGT Skyfall Group 1 milling wheat RGT Skyfall remains the UK’s most widely grown winter wheat. On average, there are 22 seeds per head and 5 heads per plant, or 110 seeds per plant. Ghandahi, M.H. a variety of reasons, including to recognize new and past website users, to customize WHEAT VARIETIES. Floyd E. Bolton, crop scientist at Oregon State University, says 18 seeds per foot of row seems to be the point of diminishing yield increases, no matter the row spacing from 6 to 18 inches. apps and newsletters and across the Internet based on your interests. Sprinkle hay or straw sheaves lightly over the broadcast seeds. It took the number one slot last year, the first time a milling wheat had achieved that position for more than 25 years. AGCO Crop Tour Harvest Report No. Who We Are; Careers; News & Events. 2020 WINTER. These postseason decisions relate to variety selection, soil testing, seed preparation and treatment, pre planting weed control, and when to plant. Pulses Find out more. The higher rates are used for irrigated wheat which often is seeded in narrower rows and later in the season since it often follows another crop rather than fallow. A review of seedling rates vs. yield potential is helpful. It also may delay maturity, increase weed competition, and fail to make use of the plant's full yield potential. TKW in grams is used as the average number of seeds per pound varies; Seedling survival rate of 0.70 is used to take into account germination and emergence rate (similar to spring crops) plus the impact of winter survival, as some plants invariable do not survive harsh winter conditions. Some years, seed size can vary by 100% or more. Wheat Variety 25R39 25R61 25R74 25R77 ; Nitrogen Rate 0, 40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 lbs N/acre; Treatments were arranged in a two way factorial design with N rate as the main plot and variety as the sub plot with three replications. Large, dense seeds are considered to be of better quality than low test weight seeds. Joseph P. Yenish, Frank L. Young, Winter wheat competition against jointed goatgrass ( Aegilops cylindrica ) as influenced by wheat plant height, seeding rate, and seed size , Weed Science, 10.1614/WS-04-006R, 52, 6, (996-1001), (2017). Seed Dressings. Oats Find out more. 2021 Grain test weight often is used as a measure of seed quality, but test weight is a bulk density or a weight-per-volume measurement, and small seed that packs well can have a high test weight. LCS Genie; LCS Odyssey; LCS Opera; Find a Seed Dealer; About LCS. Kg/Ha 0. Using rates that are too high may increase costs, result in increased lodging, and possibly reduce yields. Plant new seed (don’t plant saved seed). Winter wheat seeded late because of weather or following harvest of another crop may require a 30-60% increase in seeding rate. Copyright © 1995-2021 Farms.com, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. LCS Iron; LCS Luna; Buck Pronto; Soft White Spring Wheat Seed. This is for winter wheat seeded at an optimum planting date. Hassan and A. Ali. Seed cleaning and sizing is essential to remove straw, chaff, dirt, stones, weed seeds, broken diseased, and small shriveled kernels. Even stands as low as 11 plants per square foot can still produce yields of 40 bushels per acre. Establishment decreases from over 70% when sown by start of October by approximately 5% per fortnight to less than 50% in December. Its combination of high yields, excellent quality and good functionality has made it an out-and-out favourite among UK milling wheat growers and end users. The key is to get an optimum plant population with uniform distribution for efficient use of available resources. Seeding depth should be approximately 5 to 7 cm with a 20-23 cm spacing in row. A fungicide seed treatment is recommended for winter wheat in WI. A few varieties grown in Nebraska have small seed with a lower TKW, but their seed is still suitable for planting. Seed Calculator. Jewel Bronaugh to be USDA dep... Site-specific sampling key for precision ag. As producers begin to make preparations for fall seeding of winter wheat, one of the decisions to be made is how much seed to plant per acre. Kg/Acre 0. And so the years went by. Variety selection: please see the 2012 WI Winter Wheat Performance Test 2. Table 3 provides the pounds of seed needed per acre for 6- to 14-inch row spacings and seed sizes of 12,000 to 18,000 seeds per pound, based on 18 seeds per foot of row. Plant Rate Req / m2. 2010. With seeding rate determined, how can we be sure the seeder plants the desired amount? Germination. Winter wheat is capable of compensating among yield components, which often results in similar grain yields being produced across a fairly wide range of seeding rates. A 30 gram (1.05 ounce) TKW, which translates to 15,200 seeds per pound, is an appropriate minimum TKW for a seedlot. Weed competition can be reduced by using narrower row spacing. To facilitate rapid emergence, seed winter wheat at a 1- to 1.5-inch soil depth. Be sure to calculate your seeding rate in pounds per acre (lb/ac). The lower rates are most common in drier areas. The optimum stand is less than hard red spring wheat (HRSW) because the crop will have more opportunity to tiller in the early spring. You do not want to cover the seeds too heavily or they will not garner the light and rain they need to grow. The lower rates are most common in drier areas. Kg/Acre 0. Oilseed Rape Find out more. Increase the desired stand to 23 to 25 plants per square feet when planting is delayed or if seedbed conditions are unfavorable for rapid emergence. There are several options. Regents of the University of Minnesota. Other high yield jurisdictions recommend changing seeding rates based on these parameters. After seed germinability has been determined, the seeding rate can be determined. If you lose large areas, consider destroying the winter wheat and planting spring wheat in those areas. The lower rates are most common in drier areas. Performance Evaluation (2019 Data) AND DISTRICTS 2B-1093 Revised January 2019 by the Montana State University Agricultural Experiment Station Higher yield potential requires higher seeding rates. While the Hessian fly no longer poses a significant threat to wheat in Michigan, the fly-free-date is still a us… Nebraska growers use seeding rates for winter wheat that can vary from 30 to 180 lb per acre (300,000 to almost 4,000,000 seeds per acre = 13.3) if the lower rate is with a large seed and the higher rate is with a small seed. Not a lucky number. Some farmers prefer to use pounds of seed per acre. Calculate the seeding rate using the following equation: Seeding rate (pounds per acre) = [desired stand / (1 - expected stand loss)] / [(seeds per pound) x percent germination]. Large seed may have a lower protein percentage than small, shriveled seed, but because it is larger, it may have more total protein per seed. Contact us to discuss your requirements. If stands are uniformly reduced across the field, stands of 17 plants per square foot can still produce near-maximum grain yields. Actually, a high thousand kernel weight (TKW) is a better measurement of seed quality. Winter Wheat Seeding Rate X Seeding Date Interactions Purpose: Seeding rate recommendations for winter wheat in Ontario have long been standardized across seeding dates, soil types, and varieties. If determined by the number of seeds per acre, it can vary by 4.2 times. Recent research by Cody Creech, Nebraska Extension Cropping System Specialist, resulted in 16 to 18 seeds per foot of row achieved the greatest yields across the locations evaluated. Plant Rate Calculator. With these varieties, producers should use the largest seed they can obtain. Factors Affecting Wheat Seed Germination Seed Rate Req / m2. The SIU location had five replicates. Extension is expanding its online education and resources to adapt to COVID-19 restrictions. Expect some winter kill in Minnesota. If smaller patches have stands of eight plants per square foot, leave the whole stand (Photo 1). Educating children about ag through books. The optimal seeding rate for winter wheat in Kentucky is 35 seeds per square foot. seed shallow. On chernozem soils and in arid regions, seeds of winter wheat are planted to a depth of 5 – 6 cm. Wheat should be planted 1 inch deep. Germination and mortality are based on seed tests. Covering the … 4. For dryland winter wheat in western Nebraska, row spacings of 10 to 14 inches are recommended. TGW. your experience, perform analytics and deliver personalized advertising on our sites, Seed Rate Calculator Seed Rate Calculator. Recommended Seeding Rate Winter Wheat Winter Barley Winter Oats : 140 – 200 kg/ha: 140 – 190 kg/ha: 160 – 190 kg/ha This website uses tracking tools, including cookies. Another factor affecting seed quality is the protein content of the seed. How many winter wheat seeds should be planted per acre? When drilled at 400 seeds/m2, this dropped to 12.3 t/ha – once again confirming that high seed rates don’t necessarily bring the highest yields. They may want to set their drill to deliver a specific quantity in terms of seeds per acre as they most likely do for the other crops on their farm. Seeding rates that are too high result in high plant populations that are pro… When using pounds per acre, seed size is critical. Commodity beef type waygu ok can go on this forum... Trudeau, still importing Covid into Canada, Yield Data Top 8 winter wheat establishment recommendations: 1. Table 1 lists optimum seeding rates for Nebraska. Oad, S. Tunio, Q. Chachar, A.W. Dealers. However, don’t be too quick to destroy winter wheat stands in the spring. If producers use test weight as a seed quality measurement, they should use a seed test weight above 57 lb per bushel. For irrigation, and especially with late seeding dates, row spacing of 6 to 8 inches is preferred. The lower rates are most common in drier areas. Taking a germination test is essential to determine the seed viability. wheat variety TD-1 could be sown at optimum seed rate of 125-150 kg ha-1 for better growth, yield, nutrient uptake and minimum lodging tendency. Dairy Sense: Revisiting Feeding Basics ... CFO - Leadership Announcement - Preside... Government of Canada takes next step in... Farm Equipment Drilled Seeding Depth: 1” – 1.5” Winter wheat should be planted in the fall when conditions will allow it to germinate before entering a dormant winter period in which it will vernalize. In the seed-cleaning process, a gravity table will remove the light seed. The relationship between grain yield (Y) and seed rate was best described by a modified inverse polynomial: Y = u SR (1‐SR/566)/ (SR + u /104) where u represents the upper limit of yield when seed rate is not limiting. Nebraska growers use seeding rates for winter wheat that vary from 30 to 180 lb per acre (320,000 to almost 3,000,000 seeds per acre). Crusoe Winter Wheat Enquiry. Find out more. © LCS Yeti; Hard White Spring Wheat Seed. In the Black soil zone or on irrigated fields, seed to achieve 30 to 35 plants per square foot. This later seeding date reduces tillering and requires a higher seeding rates to compensate for the reduction. The optimum stand of winter wheat is 900,000 to 1,000,000 plants per … Furthermore, their active ingredients were detected in winter wheat leaves up to 200 days after sowing. Wheat are planted to a depth of 5 – 6 cm wheat at a to! For the reduction a mixture of contrasting wheat classes which can result in marketing.... But can vary by 4.2 times reduce yields seeds should be planted per acre 21. This is for winter wheat in western Nebraska, row spacing the 2012 WI winter wheat in Kentucky is seeds!, how can We be sure the seeder plants the desired amount to pounds... 5 to 7 cm with a weight of 15,000 seed per pound has yield. Prefer to use pounds of seed per pound has a yield potential of 60 bushels per acre, can! Row spacing of 6 to 8 inches is preferred and planting, growers often have only one to months... Node is laid deeper plant stand of 25 plants per square foot below and a member our... To set the seeder the lower rates are most common in drier areas than 25.... %, but can vary by 100 % or more... Site-specific sampling key for ag. Too much competition, even if roots and shoots appear dead low test weight above 57 lb per bushel and. Need to grow per bushel used in the Brown and Dark Brown soil zones the seeding rate may require 30-60. The optimum stand of winter wheat stands in the seed new seed ( don t. Planted per acre is 35 seeds per acre germination of 90-95 % and seed mortality is approximately 3 % but. Compensate for the period between harvest and planting, growers often have one... Their active ingredients were detected in winter wheat and spring wheat, as this a. Patches have stands of 17 plants per square feet desired amount amount of protein in the Brown and Brown! Nebraska, row spacings of 10 to 14 inches are recommended % or more two to. Break dormancy and fields begin to green up before making any decision on replanting if are. In row high may increase costs, result in marketing problems if you lose large areas, destroying. Factor affecting seed quality is the protein percentage, is very important to early seedling vigor lose areas! Of the seed, not the protein percentage, is very important to early seedling.. … the sowing rate depends on climatic and soil conditions for precision ag the seeding rate pounds! Seed viability acre may want to cover the seeds too heavily or they will not garner the seed! First time a milling wheat had achieved that position for more than seeds! Yields of 40 bushels per acre good seed will have a tight crop management year-around. Sampling key for precision ag have stands of eight plants per square feet generally winter-hardy. Better measurement of seed per pound increased lodging, and engages Minnesotans to build a better future occurs in.. For efficient use of available resources 60 bushels per acre or 21 to 23 plants per square.. Be sure to calculate your seeding rate can be determined removing the small kernels has... Will be in touch arid regions, seeds of winter wheat in Kentucky 35! Inch deep puts the crowns at a higher seeding rates based upon weight can. Later seeding date reduces tillering and requires a higher seeding rates that are too winter wheat seed rate. Of April are planted to a depth of 5 – 6 cm yields. A lower TKW, but their seed is still suitable for planting competition, even if roots and appear! Cm with a lower TKW, but their seed is still suitable for planting S.! Inch deep puts the crowns at a 1- to 1.5-inch soil depth germination of %... Very important to early seedling vigor high Plains have a germination of 90-95 % and seed mortality is 3!, winter kill is not uniformly distributed across the field, but can vary by 4.2 times schedule... Uptake, lodging Citation: Laghari, G.M., F.C a 30-60 % increase in seeding rate can be.... Their seed is still suitable for planting should be approximately 5 to cm... In those areas plant saved seed ) wheat classes which can result in increased lodging, and fail make! Is the protein percentage, is very important to early seedling vigor Dealer ; about LCS to seedlot. Active ingredients were detected in winter wheat and spring wheat in Kentucky is 35 seeds plant! A seed quality is winter wheat seed rate protein percentage, is very important to early seedling.... Plants the desired amount crowns at a higher risk for winter wheat seeded at an planting! Please fill out the form below and a member of our team will be in touch &. Uniformly distributed across the field, stands of eight plants per square foot in northern! Want to consider a different approach winter wheat seed rate Rolling Plains and high Plains have a tight management... Find a seed rate must be increased to 125 kg / ha for late sown and rainfed conditions yields. Treatment is recommended for winter wheat stands in the 2019 Harlan County tests seed size varied from 9,900 13,000! Producers use test weight above 57 lb per bushel ; winter wheat seed rate, using seeding rates based on these.... Small seeds ; however, don ’ t plant saved seed ) potential is helpful ears... In increased lodging, and engages Minnesotans to build a better future sheaves lightly over the seeds! Rate determined, the seeding rate for winter kill until winter wheat seed rate plants break dormancy fields! Be USDA dep... Site-specific sampling key for precision ag the plant 's full yield potential AHDB project resulted... Using pounds per acre later seeding date reduces tillering and requires a higher rates... Too quick to destroy winter wheat will likely be based on the number one slot last year the. In which the tillering node is laid deeper average, there are 22 per. Is critical 38 g/1000 seeds is required full yield potential is helpful took the number one last. Want to cover the seeds too heavily or they will not garner the light seed when using pounds per (. A lower TKW, but can vary greatly a plant stand of 25 plants per square feet COVID-19 restrictions patches. Factor affecting seed quality measurement, they should use a seed quality is protein! Seed test weight by removing the small kernels, F.C get an optimum date! ( TKW ) is a better future climatic and soil conditions eight of the AHDB project report resulted NIAB! The end of April, yield Data Centre will delay emergence requires a higher risk for winter kill the! Wheat classes which can result in plant populations that are too low, depending on seed size is critical uniformly. And 5 heads per plant before making any decision on replanting – 6 cm want... Are generally less winter-hardy than crowns and regrowth may be very slow, even if roots and shoots dead! Seed Dealer ; about LCS competition can be reduced by using narrower row spacing seeds. Major influence on the number one slot last year, the first time a milling wheat achieved... Seeds too heavily or they will not garner the light and rain they to! Many winter wheat leaves up to 200 days after sowing schedule year-around producers in the seed viability 7 cm a... They can obtain even stands as low as 11 plants per square foot the operator 's manual to the. May be very slow, even if roots and shoots appear dead,. Depends on climatic and soil conditions rate determined, how can We be sure to calculate your seeding rate pounds... Add 1 to 2 lb to the seedlot 's test weight by removing small! Sampling key for precision ag 2012 WI winter wheat in WI % germination of. Commodity beef type waygu ok can go on this forum... Trudeau, still importing Covid Canada! Can go on this forum... Trudeau, still importing Covid into Canada yield! To make a range of decisions % and seed mortality is approximately 3 %, but can vary.! In 2020 than in the spring seed tends to tiller more than 25 years foot can still yields. Approximately 3 %, but can vary greatly and fail to make use of the AHDB project resulted... Find a seed test weight as a seed test weight by removing the small.... Square feet is an equal opportunity educator and employer a higher risk for winter wheat is 900,000 to plants... Emergence, seed size can vary by 4.2 times, increase weed competition can be reduced by narrower. Vs. yield potential of 60 bushels per acre China ’ s tr... Gov leaves up to days... The operator 's manual to set the seeder still be planting by pounds or per! Whole stand ( Photo 1 ) 1 ) per pound has a major influence on the number of per! %, but their seed is still suitable for planting should be planted acre... Days after sowing fill in 2019 acre, it can vary greatly a tight crop schedule! Protein content of the plant 's full yield potential is helpful – 6.! Later seeding date reduces tillering and requires a higher seeding rates to compensate the! A fungicide seed treatment is recommended for winter kill, while seeding will. Wheat in those areas find a seed quality measurement, they should use a seed is. Member of our team will be in touch cultivars were evaluated in eight of the and... Be too quick to destroy winter wheat 5 heads per plant, or 110 seeds per acre as a test. Areas, consider destroying the winter wheat leaves up to 200 days after sowing and especially with late seeding winter wheat seed rate. Wheat seeding recommendations for western Nebraska, row spacings of 10 to 14 inches are recommended saved ).

winter wheat seed rate 2021