, Promoting social inclusion and social protection, promotes the subjective mental health and well-being of people, builds the capacity of communities to manage adversity, and reduces the burden and consequences of mental health problems. 02 January 2018. The conference bought together people who had been involved in reviewing Trust day services to ensure they fit in with a modern model of mental health care. View all Google Scholar citations This bias can result in discrimination, leading to low self-esteem among ‘out’-group members and a negative self-image (self-stigma). Within services, structures, systems and the balance of power between clinician and patient will have to be re-examined. Responsible businesses recognise the role they have to play in improving the ability, opportunity and dignity of people disadvantaged on the basis of their identity, background and circumstance and seek to respond in a positive and proactive way. Finally, exclusion is a two-way street: it affects people's status as members of a community and their political influence as members of a state; consequently, the wider society is also affected to the extent that it creates or tolerates social exclusion. We discuss Levitas's three discourses concerning social exclusion (the redistributionist, moral underclass and social integrationist) and present a case in favour of a fourth perspective, societal oppression. Thanks to the community mental health and recovery fields, there has been a shift toward perceiving people with mental health diagnoses as being capable of living meaningful lives in their community. The discourse surrounding oppression is particularly relevant to the analysis of the multiple sources of exclusion. "subject": true, The report from the Charity Commission, The promotion of social inclusion, sets out the various factors which contribute to people becoming excluded and mechanisms to support greater integration and inclusion. Its authors, Reference Tajfel, Turner, Austin and WorchelTajfel & Turner (1979), posit that membership of social groups forms part of a person's self-concept and predict that people are positively biased towards their own group (the ‘in’ group). Objective: Social inclusion is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to positive mental health outcomes, particularly for people with mental illness. In practice, the opportunity is rarely realised, owing to low take up of direct payments (Reference Ridley and JonesRidley & Jones, 2002; Reference Newbiggin and LoweNewbiggin & Lowe, 2005). In the UK, the National Social Inclusion Programme has been established to take forward the recommendations of the Social Exclusion Unit's influential report and action plan Social Exclusion and Mental Health (Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, 2004a Social inclusion is central to promoting mental health and minimising the disability associated with mental illness. Like the other three discourses, the societal oppression discourse can be used to enhance our understanding of how to promote social inclusion. This is reflected in their inclusion in the list of ‘essential shared capabilities’ for the mental healthcare workforce (Reference HopeHope, 2004). Psychiatrists are clearly expected to play their part: in April 2007 social inclusion was named as a policy priority for mental health services over the next few years (Reference ApplebyAppleby 2007a In this respect, the promotion of ‘direct payments’ is a step towards greater social inclusion (Box 2). Exclusion cannot exist unless someone or something brings it about, be it through inadvertence, the operation of a system (e.g. Domain 5: Action on social inclusion and the social determinants of health, mental health and wellbeing Capability 5A: Supporting social inclusion and advocacy on social determinants Capability 5B: Actively challenging stigmatising attitudes and discrimination, and promoting positive understandings This is one factor that keeps the theme live in UK policy circles and it tends to be adopted by interest groups whenever an injustice is perceived or policy priority is sought. Having social ties can promote feelings of attachment and companionship, enhancing one’s sense of purpose and self-esteem. e contact theory cannot be applied to race and ethnicity. Much has been written about the history of the concept of social exclusion (Reference Percy-Smith and Percy-SmithPercy-Smith, 2000). There is a lack of consensus regarding what it means to be socially included and what the key contributors to social inclusion may be. Direct payments may reduce the relative disadvantage but might also entrench the individuals' dependence on benefits, preventing increasing social inclusion when their illness improves or remits. Community participation and civic engagement are associate… Lack of social inclusion, is a significant problem for individuals who have experienced mental health problems … This transactional aspect of social exclusion indicates that remedies cannot be found solely from the perspective of the excluded. Consumers and their families have highlighted that stigma and discriminatory attitudes to mental illness are still prevalent. In the media, ‘social exclusion’ seems to have passed into everyday use: ‘Of all the disadvantaged groups in society, the disabled are the most socially excluded. Knowledge about mental illness and decision-making power are unequally held. The nature of this interaction is inherently exclusionary for the individuals affected, as it separates them from their usual social environment and also deprives them of fundamental rights. The Social Exclusion Unit's report on mental health and social exclusion (Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, 2004a Social exclusion and wasted human potential are harmful to the country as well as to those individuals suffering from them’. Suggested actions from the conference included: removing barriers between services to help achieve real contact with local community services; address obstructions to education and employment; and health promotion programmes to de-stigmatise mental illness. institutional racism) or active discrimination by individuals. In both perspectives, sectors of society are identified in terms of their personal attributes and are disadvantaged as a consequence. In the next section we highlight theoretical frameworks from social psychology that might explain why certain types of organisational structure and interpersonal activity may be more conducive to social inclusion than others. 2017. Reference LevitasLevitas (1998) describes a discourse as a set of interrelated concepts acting as a ‘matrix’ through which to understand the world. But these supra-national bodies are predominantly concerned with gross forms of exclusion such as mass unemployment, slavery, disenfranchisement and oppression on ethnic grounds. Promoting social inclusion for young people affected by psycho-social disability in India – a realist evaluation of a pilot intervention. In particular, an intervention that helps one aspect of inclusion may harm another. Social exclusion is ‘dynamic’, meaning that: a once people have been excluded they remain that way, b exclusion is passed from one generation to the next, d exclusion leads to greater social mobility. From the examples given, these may be large and indeterminate (society), private enterprises (the railways) or public bodies (education). It is also the nearest discourse to contemporary policy on social inclusion in England, illustrated by the emphasis on economic integration in the work of the Social Exclusion Task Force (2007): ‘Britain has enjoyed a strong economy and growing prosperity in recent years, but we would be more prosperous still if the talents of each and every member of the community could flourish. In doing so, it contravenes both ethnos and demos. Social inclusion as a determinant of mental health and wellbeing Lower levels of social trust have been associated with higher rates of most causes of death, including heart attacks, cancer, stroke, unintentional injury and infant mortality (Kawachi & Berkman 2000). Therefore, the responsibility for fostering social inclusion is seen to lie with government departments. This data will be updated every 24 hours. Each of these implies certain remedies for exclusion or approaches to inclusion, and thereby offers indications for mental healthcare and other agencies tasked with addressing social exclusion. Query parameters: { The relational nature of mental healthcare offers numerous opportunities for social inclusion to be increased or decreased. 2 At the same time, a negative bias is predicted towards other groups (the ‘out’ groups). Such an amalgam of problems has also been described as ‘multiple deprivation’. Used as a term of condemnation, ‘social exclusion’ makes the accuser's position clear, but it begs the question ‘Who is excluding whom from what?’ In the examples given above, society appears to be excluding disabled people in general, the railways to be excluding non-professional people from using trains, and schools to be excluding certain children from their peers by suspending them from school. These three discourses identify respectively poverty, culture and unemployment as the prime causes of social exclusion. 643–644). It may be helpful to consider these responses in relation to alternative ‘discourses’ of social exclusion. Regarding social identity and contact theory: a membership of social groups forms part of the self-concept, b positive biases are given towards the ‘out’ group, c discrimination and stigma lead to high self-esteem, d positive contact increases negative stereotypes. It is organised into nine ‘life domains’ (Box 4). Ways of promoting social inclusion 4 What should charities promoting social inclusion consider when drafting what they do as a charitable aim? A transactional understanding of social exclusion is of particular importance in the promotion of political engagement and avoidance of conflict. We briefly describe the origins of the term social exclusion and analyse its connotations in relation to four key dimensions: the relative, multifactorial, dynamic and transactional. We highlight the potential contribution of social psychology to social inclusion theory. Debra, Rose Wilson No eLetters have been published for this article. This is why the use of the term social exclusion in relation to rail passengers gives pause for thought. Beyond services, social exclusion is perpetuated by public prejudice, by far-reaching discrimination and by the association between mental illness and other indicators of deprivation. The report can be accessed here. This is the understanding of social exclusion that dominates European social policy. 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